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Teeth Regeneration and Regrowth 2024: Current Research and Future Treatments

There are way too many breakthrough news (mostly containing useless phrases like No more dental fillings!) all over the web, so we have decided to put together a single page with all current and upcoming state-of-the-art treatments that will revolutionize dentistry. We believe that this page is the most comprehensive and most frequently updated summary on the entire web, period. This article will always be a work in progress with constant updates - so far this page has been updated over 70 times making it a reliable and always up-to-date source of information on future dental treatments.
If you have information on any new research or discoveries that are not listed on this page please let us know in the comments section below. This page is a collaborative effort  - multiple findings were presented to us by our readers in the comments section.

Last updated: January 02, 2024 (Title, Usag-1 section, Pulp section)

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Chapters of this summary:

Jump directly to the part of the summary that you are interested in by these links:
Enamel regeneration
Dentin regeneration
Pulp regeneration (updated Dec 2023!)
Growing new teeth (updated Nov 2023!)
Vaccine for dental caries
Dental implants research
Dubious/fake research and treatments
Comments: post your news, ask your question here

When will tooth regeneration be available?

The “tl;dr” (too long; didn’t read) answer: If you are waiting to have your decayed tooth regrown in the mouth or regrown and then reimplanted then sadly the answer is: this is not happening anytime soon. If you want to have some layers of dentin or enamel regrown or regenerated this research looks more promising, but we don’t expect any commercial procedures with these discoveries in the next 5 years, sorry. Instead of waiting, if you want to avoid the drilling we encourage you to read on natural therapies including arresting caries by remineralization.

To better answer this question we have divided the regeneration process to separate layers, that is enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum. If you have deep cavities you should be most interested in dentin regeneration, and if your main concern is enamel erosion then enamel research will be crucial to you.

Enamel regeneration 2024 – can scientists regrow enamel?

First of all, it is important to separate enamel remineralization and enamel regeneration. In this article, we are discussing only the latter one, which means growing new layers of enamel, which your body is unable to do on its own.

Most promising work regarding regrowing enamel

Repair of tooth enamel by a biomimetic mineralization frontier ensuring epitaxial growth

How exactly does regrowing enamel (growing new layers of enamel) work?

We’ll describe that soon.

When will this treatment be available?

The main problem with this treatment is a really slow regrowth rate – 2.7µm for 48 hours of treatment which equals approximately 17777 hours needed to regrow one millimeter of enamel. So to be clinically applicable this technology would have to be improved. As of now, it does not look like a viable treatment for dental caries but it may be helpful in the future in treating enamel erosion. We expect this treatment to be commercially available within 15-20 years’ time and only to treat enamel erosion, not dental caries.

Other work regarding regrowing enamel

Materials chemistry: a synthetic enamel for rapid tooth repair
– by dr Kazue Yamagishi, Japan

How it works?

This work, by dr Kazue Yamagishi and her team, is a novel idea of restoring teeth with early decay. Instead of drilling and filling teeth with resins (which are never perfect and tight sealing of a cavity), she suggests using special toothpaste with HAP crystals (called Synthetic Enamel). After etching the tooth with early decay, her toothpaste is applied and creates a perfect seal, unlike resins that are unable to do so. Although the treatment is called toothpaste it actually is a form of professional treatment performed on a dental chair that takes about 15 minutes to complete. If you ask us, it’s somewhat similar to clinically available DMG Icon technology (a caries infiltrant), only more biocompatible.

When will this treatment be available?

Initial information on this treatment was published in 2005 in Nature, and toothpaste was announced in 2016 (an announcement has been published on dr Kazue Yamagishi’s website, intended for the Japanese market) but as of 2024 it’s still not available and it does not look like it’s going to be in the near future or ever. We have made an attempt to contact dr Kazue Yamagishi to obtain detailed information, but she never got back to us.

Japanese regenerating enamel toothpaste

This product by dr Kazue Yamagishi never made it to the market, yet some users ask us about Japanese toothpaste that can regrow or regenerate enamel. The only thing that is currently available on the market and actually comes from Japan is hydroxyapatite toothpaste. This compound appears to be a novel alternative to fluoride. But this is not a new invention – the world’s first nanoparticle hydroxyapatite toothpaste called Apadent was introduced in the 1980s. Then, in the 1990s hydroxyapatite has been approved as an anticaries agent, and then another invention took place in the 2000s, when particle size was reduced from 3- to 2-figure nanoscale, increasing remineralizing effect. This is when toothpaste with this compound started being available on European and American markets.

Regrowing teeth enamel human trials 2024

As of now there are no human trials in progress or pending, we’ll update this information once this changes.

Other work regarding regrowing enamel

Hydrogel that can promote the growth of an enamel-like surface on teeth and remineralize the dentin
– by Prof. Janet Moradian-Oldak (Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States)

How it works?

The team of Prof. Janet Moradian-Oldak fabricated hydrogel, which is a form of synthetic enamel, which is an approach similar to the one by dr Kazue Yamagishi. As she explains in an online interview: We focused on the chemical events that happen outside of the enamel-making cells in order to create enamel. This meant using the right ions and proteins that make enamel hydroxyapatite (calcium and phosphate) crystals. We used chitosan gel as an inert carrier within which the chemistry would take place. It is similarly designed to be applied for early carious lesions, preventing them from progressing and also providing much better adherence than traditional resin fillings: We started by using a full-length recombinant synthetic protein called amelogenin to regrow a newly formed synthetic mineralized layer on enamel. (…) We started by using a full-length recombinant synthetic protein called amelogenin to regrow a newly formed synthetic mineralized layer on enamel. (…) We now have a technology that hasn’t quite reached the complex hierarchical structure of enamel but is at a level that will be functional and has improved properties when compared to damaged enamel.

When will this treatment be available?

According to the publications dated May 2019, the hydrogel is a complete product but requires full clinical trials, which in the case of classic drugs may take even up to 10 years. The hydrogel is working on human teeth (which were previously extracted from the patient’s mouth) but it’s not clear if the treatment will work just as well inside the human mouth. Another concern that needs to be checked is whether the product is safe so that it can pass all the regulatory steps. Please keep in mind that although this is the closest to hit the market it is also not as promising as the biomimetic mineralization frontier approach.

Dentin regeneration 2024 – is it possible to regrow dentin?

Dentin is a tissue that is usually covered by enamel (or some kind of dental fillings) and surrounds the entire pulp. This is the second layer that gets affected if you develop dental caries. In contrast to enamel, your body can grow new layers of dentin (called secondary and tertiary dentin) but it does not happen in the way you may think it does.

Most promising work regarding regrowing dentin and its regeneration

Promotion of natural tooth repair by small molecule GSK-3 antagonists

How exactly regenerating dentin (growing new dentin) with Tideglusib works?

Although scientists have already figured out a way to actually grow new dentin it does not work as well as it may sound. As you may know, your body is able to produce some reparative dentin inside the pulp chamber, but it’s not able to do so outside of it, on top of dentin that’s already there. The true regenerative procedure would be exactly that – being able to grow new dentin on top of decayed parts of it, that were just removed by a dentist (using a drill). As of now, scientists have only managed to deliver a reproducible technique that allows them to form a reparative dentine close to native dentine compositions at defect sites translatable to small human lesions. This means that when you have really deep cavity and your pulp is exposed dentist usually places material called MTA to stimulate dentin regeneration in this area (to cover the pulp again). This triggers some natural regeneration of dentin (buildup of reparative dentin under MTA material) but this regeneration is very limited and it forms only a thin layer. With GSK-3 inhibitor-triggered reparative dentinogenesis scientists were able to improve this regeneration which results in more robust regenerative dentin formation. But in order for this technology to work it requires direct access to pulp cells, which is why it would not work when applied on top of the already existing dentin layer.

When will this treatment be available?

At this point, there are no clinical trials available yet, but the treatment was confirmed to be viable in humans regarding low toxicity and the ability to regrow small layers of dentin. We expect this treatment to be available within 10 years’ time. It’s still not clear if this will be a viable kind of treatment that will become publicly available.

Regrowing teeth dentin human trials 2024

As of now there are no human trials in progress or pending, we’ll update this information once this changes. The first possible human trials are in King’s College London as their research appears to be the most advanced.

Tooth pulp regeneration 2024 – can dead pulp be regenerated or restored?

The pulp is the inner part of each tooth and it’s made of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. It is sealed and protected by dentin but in case of deep caries or trauma can be exposed and infected. So far the only way of treating such conditions was an endodontic treatment which is a form of therapy that involves the removal of the dental pulp.

Dental pulp regeneration – most promising treatment alternative to root canals

Adult pulpotomy (VPT – Vital Pulp Therapy procedure) – partial pulpotomy procedure with use of bioceramics (like BioDentine)

Partial pulpotomy is a procedure in which a dentist removes only the damaged portion of the pulp (or all the pulp in the upper chamber of the tooth), but without touching the roots. Simply put, it’s a less invasive (more conservative) alternative to Root Canal Therapy because some of the pulp is saved and the tooth is kept vital. Unfortunately, in the past, this treatment was considered only for immature permanent teeth with pulp exposure due to caries or trauma or as an emergency procedure for permanent mature teeth until root canal treatment can be accomplished. This is due to a lack of success in adults in the past, but the development of novel bioceramic materials and a better understanding of pulpal biology and pathophysiology have changed a lot in the field.
Current diagnostic tools are a limitation, and there is still no proper clinical protocol established that is universally accepted by all professionals for this kind of treatment (which is why they are so limited), but it is important to mention that this type of treatment is officially recognized and suggested by The American Association of Endodontists (since 2021), which is why it should become widely available in dental offices in the coming years. Please note that this treatment is not for you if your pulp is fully necrotic, it is viable only if your pulp is inflamed (a state called irreversible pulpitis).
If you are interested in researching this topic, here’s a list of some dentists who published research regarding this matter: Dr. Ricucci, Dr. Nasseh, Dr. Rhodes.

So what exactly does this mean for you? It means that irreversible pulpitis (inflammation of the pulp) may actually now be reversible! If you have deep tooth decay with pulp exposure and the tooth symptoms (usually the cold test) indicate irreversible pulpitis this used to mean the need for Root Canal Therapy (and having a “dead” tooth). This no longer is the case – if you get treated by an endodontist who follows the new principles only a small part of your pulp will get removed and your tooth will remain vital, with none of the drawbacks that come with the need for RCT. Please keep in mind that there are some other specific conditions that need to be met (like the ability to control the bleeding) and the rate of success is not 100% but this treatment is a true innovation and it is already available to the patients. If you need help in finding an endodontist who performs VPT in your area just contact us and we’ll try to help!

SealBio: A novel, non-obturation endodontic treatment based on the concept of regeneration

A novel form of regenerative treatment to replace classic endodontic treatment is SealBio developed in India in 2012. It is a new kind of endodontic treatment protocol that’s non-surgical and developed to manage pulp and periapically involved teeth. It has been found to cure and regenerate an infected root canal through stem cell activation. Sounds good right? Sadly the stem cell activation and sealing are done at the apical foramen, and the pulp in the chamber is still removed, so that’s not exactly what you may have thought.

Low-Level Laser Therapy for dental pulp regeneration

As there is no real alternative to root canal therapy, the only way to help regenerate your pulp (successful to a limited extent) is LLLT, which stands for Low-Level Laser Therapy (red soft laser). It has been studied that under certain conditions pulp in dogs’ teeth responded better when subjected to LLLT before direct pulp capping.1 But they have also shown that the use of MTA material instead of gold foil gave better results than the LLLT which suggests that the treatment is not as effective, as we’d like it to be. Surprisingly, some studies show that LLLT irradiation may be also helpful in treating dental caries, as it affects Streptococcus mutans counts.

Dental pulp tissue regeneration using dental pulp stem cells isolated and expanded in human serum3

Summary paper for this study published Feb 2017 concludes that adult DPSCs (Dental Pulp Stem Cells) have the potential to regenerate dentin and dental pulp tissue due to their differentiation capacity and angiogenic properties. DPSCs were successfully tested in preclinical and clinical pilot study for dental pulp regeneration. Following their transplantation, DPSCs-HS yield regeneration of dental pulp tissue evidenced by their differentiation into endothelial cells to participate in forming a functional vasculature and their formation of predentin tissue over time. The study concluded that the implications of its findings are significant for further development of clinical protocols using DPSCs in cell therapies. However, as of now, there is no information on any further research or clinical trials.

Dental pulp restoration (with a possibility to reverse root canals!) in Japanese dental practice Nagoya RD Dental Clinic (Satsuki-DC)

The procedure of replacing necrotic (dead) pulp or even replacing existing root canals (removing gutta percha from the canals and rebuilding dental pulp) is something we did not see so far. It appears there is a dental practice in Japan that has succeded in doing so. Dental pulp stem cells are collected and from extracted unnecessary teeth like wisdom teeth, then cultured for a month and replanted into tooth chamber (after existing pulp or filling material has been removed). We are not aware of any other dental offices providing this service, and as of now it is fairly expensive (tens of thousands of dollars).

All steps of the procedure are as follows:
1. Extraction of unnecessary teeth, collection and cultivation of dental pulp stem cells
Unwanted teeth such as wisdom teeth are extracted and dental pulp stem cells are collected from them.
This will be cultured for about a month in preparation for transplantation.
In addition to wisdom teeth, you can use the baby teeth that will fall out between the ages of 7 and 10.
2. Dental pulp stem cell transplantation
The pulp of the tooth to be treated is removed, sterilized, and cultured pulp stem cells are transplanted. At this time, the chemotactic factor G-CSF is also transplanted.
3. New blood vessels, nerve elongation, pulp regeneration, dentin regeneration
Due to the action of G-CSF, cells remain within the root canal, promoting angiogenesis, nerve elongation, and pulp regeneration. Furthermore, the lost dentin will be regenerated.
4. Storing dental pulp stem cells to protect the future of your teeth
Dental pulp stem cells used for pulp regeneration treatment can be stored at the Aeras Bio Dental Pulp Stem Cell Bank. Regenerative treatment is a field that has been actively researched in recent years, and stored dental pulp stem cells can be used not only for future dental pulp regeneration treatments, but also for Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disorders, cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, leukemia, and malignant tumors. It is expected to be used in the treatment of aplastic anemia, spinal cord injury, etc.

Regenerating dental pulp human trials 2024

As of now, there are no human trials in progress or pending, we’ll update this information once this changes.

Regrowing whole teeth (growing new teeth) 2024 – is it possible to make adult teeth grow back?

There are two possible approaches to growing new teeth – implanting whole living teeth or growing teeth directly in the mouth of a patient. Sadly there are no upcoming treatments at this point.
First of all, it is worth mentioning that some animals do grow new sets of teeth, and some of them shed teeth almost constantly throughout their lifetimes. Humans grow only 2 sets of teeth, but there are occasional reports that some people grow back teeth for the third time or they even grow entire sets of teeth. Currently, scientists have not answered the question of why this happens in some people and not in others.

Scientific background of natural tooth development in humans

Tooth development in humans begins when there is an interaction between the epithelium (that’s a scientific name for the upper layer of skin in the jaw) and the mesenchyme (the connective tissue located beneath it). The progenitor cells gather in the area, where the tooth is to grow and form a mesenchymal condensate. Based on the signals it is making the epithelial cells grow into the mesenchyme and invert the condensate. This form of close cell-to-cell contact between these tissues acts as a trigger and causes the cells to differentiate into those cells which then form two kinds of hard tissues – the dentin and the enamel. After this tooth develops to its full size in the jaw before erupting from the sinus. It is important to notice that once the tooth is lost, mesenchymal condensation necessary for a new tooth to grow no longer occurs, therefore the process is never repeated. Scientists at The Technical University of Berlin are aiming to solve exactly this problem by implanting the tooth germ grown in their laboratory into the jaw.

Most promising work regarding regrowing growing new teeth (regrowing human teeth)

Work by the Technical University of Berlin (Department of Medical Biotechnology)

Work by the Kyoto University, Japan (Anti–USAG-1 therapy for tooth regeneration through enhanced BMP signaling) – implementation by WuXi Biologics and Toregem BioPharma as a monoclonal antibody “TRG035” with possible clinical trials in 2024.

Work by the Warsaw University of Technology (SteamScaf) – very early research, first publications are from 2022 claiming the whole research will take at least over a dozen years

How exactly regrowing/growing new teeth is supposed to work according to TU of Berlin?

As mentioned above in the scientific background once a tooth is lost there is no new trigger for a new tooth to grow and this is precisely where TU of Berlin scientists want to act. They already claim that they were successful in developing a specific process and patenting it globally. Although it will certainly take some time until this is available for clinical use they claim to have very good results from in-vitro studies so far and the main task as of now is to transfer the whole procedure to the biological environment.

So what exactly is their process about? Firstly, they extract cells from the dental pulp cells from human teeth and make them multiply in the lab. In the next step “these cells are cultivated in microwell plates, which are covert with a special layer to prevent the cells from sticking, thus causing the cells to interact and form a three-dimensional cell ball known as a dental organoid.
The whole concept is about implanting this organoid into the patient’s jaw, which is designed to trigger natural tooth growth in the jaw. This has already been successfully demonstrated in lab conditions. Teeth are designed to grow from the patient’s own cells so there is no need to use stem cells in the process, so the whole process is free from any ethical considerations.

Different approach: Anti–USAG-1 therapy through enhanced BMP signaling – monoclonal antibody TRG035

These are relatively new discoveries and they are pretty complex to explain so our explanation will be pretty basic and limited so that you can get an idea what is it all about. For more detailed scientific explanation please read original paper listed in references below2.
Scientists have conducted experiments with wild-type or mutant mice where they found that BMP/Wnt signaling is critical for determining the number of teeth in mice. There is a bifunctional protein called USAG-1 (Uterine sensitization–associated gene-1) that antagonizes BMP and Wnt. So the conclusion was the USAG-1 is what controls the number of teeth by limiting the potential of developing new tooth germs. Experiments conducted with use of Anti-USAG1 antibody (later called TRG035) revealed that a single administration of this antibody was enough to generate a whole new tooth. What’s especially important this therapy is pending clinical trials in 2024 by WuXi Biologics and Toregem BioPharma as a monoclonal antibody “TRG035”. Press notes claim that this treatment will work as a tooth regeneration treatment for congenital adentia – as of now, it is unclear if this will be a universal therapy or limited to very specific cases.

When will this treatment be available?

We are far away from this technology being widely available, below is a timeline for 3 types of cases:
1. Year 2030 is the soonest possible launch of treatment for people who have no teeth at all at birth
2. Year 2033 is the soonest possible launch of treatment for people that were missing some of their teeth at birth.
3. For all the patients that lost teeth due to tooth decay, periodontal disease or trauma there is no certain date disclosed as of now. All we can assume is that it will be a few years later than 2033. This information is based on 2022 corporate presentation by Honoka Kiso, CEO of Toregem BioPharama Co., Ltd.

Regrowing teeth human trials 2024

Currently, there are no human trials in progress or pending. Berlin Institute of Technology claims that they have finished the preliminary tests and are about to start the first pre-clinical tests, making it one step closer to human trials. We will update this information once any progress is achieved.
Side note: A phase I clinical study of the TRG035 molecule by WuXi Biologics and Toregem BioPharma (read above more about it) is planned to start in early 2024 (as of October 2020).

Vaccine for dental caries 2024 – when will it be available?

There are multiple approaches regarding vaccination for dental caries, and some of them have clinical trials in progress. We will update this chapter soon.

Dental implants advancements 2024 – new implant technologies

Since growing and implanting whole teeth is not coming anytime soon we have decided to focus also on dental implant research and innovation since recently there were some impressive advancements in this field as well.

Modern dental implants are a technology that is about 40 years old since their milestones in osseointegration were termed in 1981. The standard screw-type implant has not changed much since that time, but there were some novel approaches listed below. Implants debuted as a metal (titanium) screw

Zirconium as a dental implant material

Bioimplant (RAI – Root Analogue Implant)

This is the first CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) implant development system based in Vienna, Austria, Europe (and as of now, available only there). Each procedure consists of three steps:

  • pre op CT/DVT scan
  • tooth extraction in certain manner
  • immediate (same or next day) implant placement with protective splint
  • crown fitting after 8-12 weeks healing period is complete

The main advantages of this approach compared to classic dental implants are the following:

  • there is no need for a sinus lift or bone grafting
  • there is also no need for a classic implant surgery – the whole procedure is simplified and easier, meaning there is no drilling into bones
  • the implant is designed to fit your bone socket, rather than drilled into the bone that later fits the implant
  • implant is made fully from zirconium (it’s 100% titanium free)

However, it is also important to address the limitations of this system:

  • you need to have your tooth still in place
  • success rate is marginally lower than classic implants
  • it is being offered in only one place – in Vienna (Austria, Europe)
  • it is more expensive than classic zirconium implants

Replicate Tooth

This system is based on a concept similar to the Bioimplant but uses titanium instead of zirconium as a base material (titanium base is fused seamlessly to the zirconium crown for aesthetic purposes). While it may sound inferior, the main advantage of this company is that the implants are not produced on-site and thanks to that it is being offered in more places than just one. Yet the FDA approval is not cleared, so currently you cannot get any kind of anatomic implants in the United States.
Please note that as of 2024 Replicate Tooth went bankrupt and their technology will no longer be in commercial use.

Other dubious or fake dental regenerative treatments

We would like to thank our readers for posting links to new innovative research and treatments in the comments section. We read all the papers carefully and in this section, we have decided to comment on all these shares that did not make it to our article (with an explanation of why we decided to not include this information). We read all the comments and encourage you to post more, thank you!

InnoDent – enamel implantation

There is a website that sells therapy in form of flasks that are supposed to create new enamel as the quote says: “New enamel is formed within 3 weeks with all the morphological and physiological properties of natural human enamel (color, luster, mineralization, and strength).” To us this sounds too good to be true so obviously, we have many concerns regarding the product and its efficacy. The manufacturer claims that this is (quote again) “the patented biocompatible peptide-implant and the bio-organic analog of human amelogenin” but does not provide any information regarding the patent, nor there is any information on the price or company address. What we would like to see is a scientific, peer-reviewed paper that explains how the product works, until such a paper is published we do not recommend trying these kinds of miracle cures.

Products with the word Repair in their names

There are many products that claim to repair enamel (containing the word repair in their names like Curodont Repair or ApaCare Repair). These are all legitimate products, but the word repair may be misleading for some customers – none of these products promise to build new enamel, what they do is in fact repair existing enamel by remineralizing it. So it’s always a good idea to use these, but if you’re looking to grow new enamel these products won’t be able to help you.


1 The Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Direct Pulp Capping in Dogs – J Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Summer; 7(3): 177–183.
2 Anti–USAG-1 therapy for tooth regeneration through enhanced BMP signaling – Science Advances 12 Feb 2021 Vol 7, Issue 7 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf1798
3 Dental pulp tissue regeneration using dental pulp stem cells isolated and expanded in human serum PMCID: PMC5797986


  • David Baldwin

    Bacteria, Tooth Decay, and Cavities will always exist. So will treating them (Drilling). However, it is with great hope that this new possibility in stem cell regeneration procedure in repairing parts of the tooth crown will become successful in the next few years. Fillings would be regenerated from the same material as that of the tooth. The new formed tooth structure would still become susceptible to further decay, so brushing and good oral hygiene must be maintained. Overall even if this procedure were expensive, it would still be worth it. Provided it were safe. It would be a win, win for both the Dentist and the patient.

    Stem Cell Tooth Fillings
    I know that certain dental questions are hard to answer, but I fill the need to ask this one because it has been on my mind for quite some time. In terms of a rough estimate, how much longer do they think it will take in terms of coming up with a new procedure where existing synthetic tooth fillings will be able to be replaced with stem cell grown tooth fillings?

    These would be bio fillings grown from the existing dentin layer (inside the tooth) grown outward to fill in the entire area of the tooth that was originally drilled out to place the original synthetic filling.

    I have done some extensive online research into this subject since 2009, after receiving a tooth filling in my upper first right molar. At one point I read that such a technology may become a reality after ten years (that was back in 2011). So far tests have only been done on mice teeth. Now that it is near the end of 2019 there has been an explosion of online information covering dental healing. You would think that a solution to this subject would be just a few short years away.

    respectfully David PB


      Thank you for your comment, David.
      If you have a cavity that needs to be drilled it certainly affects not only enamel but dentin as well (dentist usually don’t drill decay confined to enamel only). Due to this, there won’t be one single stem cell based filling material, as a dentist would need to recreate lost (drilled) dentin AND enamel – these layers have different roles in the tooth, different hardness, different fragility, etc. Because they are two separate structures, the reconstruction process would require two steps and two types of stem cells. Scientists are closer to developing dentin regeneration protocols, so the first technology of this kind would probably look like this:
      1. classic drilling to remove decay
      2. some sort of dentin (inner layer of the tooth) rebuilding protocol – this will probably take not less than a week, the tooth would be filled temporarily with regenerative materials
      3. once dentin is fully regrown missing enamel would be replaced by a synthetic material (like a traditional composite filling or some kind of a ceramic material).
      Also, you need to know that having your molar filled is not a big deal, as long as the tooth is vital and you keep good oral hygiene it certainly is not a reason to worry!


      At this point nothing is certain, so there are no certain dates. Please read our article and check back often to stay up to date.

    • David Baldwin

      I would give anything if there was anything, anywhere, a known treatment that could heal / replace an existing tooth filling with grow back tooth enamel and dentin in the crown of a tooth. A diet, herbs, special foods, oil pulling, lasers, stem cells, vibration, anything. There must be some form of information and treatment that can do this. Even for non producing cells. And please don’t say that this treatment is 20-30 years down the road.

    • A

      Please continue research on this site, compiling new products and available treatments, and hopefully our current tech research advances by 2023.

    • alxnimrod

      Or try this – bilveneers over crude dental composite restorations firmly cemented in place without adhesives by shape alone. Know of a case where it worked, where pulp capping is even part of it. Needs occasional crack, fissure, and chunk replacement of the dental composite part. Once the jaw and sinuses adjust with enough saline solutions and alcohol, it’s comfortable, functional, and looks fine at a glance. Freaks dentists out but it works. Call it redneck if you like, but beats the hell out of dentures. Do it yourself only- dentists won’t touch it with any length pole.

    • Cascubagyrl

      that is a solution for some but that is cosmetic only, it does nothing for bone retention or preventing bone loss, no idea how much it costs but it might be a good temporary solution for people suffering minimal tooth loss who are trying to save up enough for implants, otherwise this seems like another item to add to all the rest of the daily cosmetics people use, a cheap superficial product to add like their fake lashes, implants may for be organic but they are far more a permanent part of you, the snap in’s, they do come out to clean under them yes but they are still integrated with your body, the permanent ones only come out for routine cleaning and are attached to you in a way you can be far more positive about. I know the tooth regeneration is available for some high up military and the elite scum on this planet, people need to hear about that and demand it be made available to the rest of us as well! It should be far less painful than anything currently offered, have very little risk and be quite more affordable as well, the benefits are so numerous and substantial to peoples lives, I do not understand why everything has not been thrown at developing this technology and why it is not already available has to come down to one single thing as usual, whomever is benefiting from the current products offered could never come close to the profit they could make from tooth regeneration and therefore throwing everything in their arsenal to prevent it being put on the market for public use and one other is the psychopaths on this planet who control just about everything as well as population management who do not want happy, healthy individuals existing anywhere, they want sickly people who are not feeling their best or looking their best, they want them dependent on toxic products and procedures all their lives who die early before they are deemed “useless” from all the toxicity of a lifetime being subjected to countless poisoned products and harmful procedures, you think I am a crazy conspiracy theorist? Look up all the natural remedies there are for cancer, many of them are readily available items grown in backyard gardens, not much money to be made from them, you could of course destroy the organic versions and replace them with patented GMO versions, at the moment, the GMO versions aren’t being produced with health in mind but actually contrary to it and the effort to destroy the natural versions availability to any of us ever hoping to obtain in any form ever again is immense. My comment will most likely be removed but we have been in the soft stage of extermination for at least a hundred years depending on how you define it, if you include needles wars, needless famine and such I can’t even date when it began, they are stepping it up now rapidly, if somehow you can’t see this already, you won’t have that luxury much longer. My aim honestly is not to upset people, my aim is to hopefully be part of what wakes people up to this fact so they become part of the force I am part of trying to stop it, we need you desperately in order to stop the psychos from killing you and everyone else, it is a conspiracy that is 100% true but it is no theory, there is endless data and evidence proving it is 100% real and happening as we speak and will continue to pick up steam if nothing is done to stop it! LOL< I had no intention of trailing off down this path when I started the comment but would up here accidentally, it however, is so very relevant! Peace & Love to all! Humanity must prevail! What are the predicted cancer growth rates? Fertility expectations, sperm production rates in young men, not trying to make anything racial but if you happen to be Caucasian or black, the future of your race is not looking too good, I hope you don't think that is coincidence, neither race has suddenly become weak, as I mentioned not trying to cause racial drama but the elite on this planet are mainly interested in the survival of people who are slaves basically, they do what they are told, work hard and do not ask too many questions, they have an abundant supply of those already, they really have no need to bother with the rest who need adjustments or won't ever be obedient mindless workers. far to easy to just eliminate all of them entirely, oh and they do not favor smart ones either, they have got technology to the point, smart is no longer needed, they got AI and they have automation, technology has them everything they want or will need, smart -people can only disrupt or cause trouble, I will debate any of this with anyone who thinks any of what I am saying is not happening as we speak?
      Edit: I meant to say implants may not be organic, I do not see an edit option?

    • Lovinight

      I find it interesting that the author never mentions silver nitrate cavity solutions, I believe there are only a handful of doctors that offer this method but the silver nitrate concoction is supposed to stop a cavity completely, dead in it’s tracks which enables them to perform needle-less, drill-less cavity solutions (of course there has to be enough remaining tooth left to hold the filling to offer this procedure?

    • Chris

      First of i want to say that you have done an amazing job with this article and you should keep up updating it. It’s really helpful and something like that doesn’t exist out there. Secondly i want to ask when do you think we will be able to treat cavities (no matter the depth) with regenerative methods? I have some fillings that I really want to get rid of them and all these sound very promising but really far since no clinical trials have happened. Thank you!


      Hello, thank you for your comment. We will continue updating the article. Regarding fillings, you can arrest fillings limited to enamel with intensive demineralization protocols (both high concentration fluoride and hydroxyapatite). When decay reaches dentin you can try the DMG Icon infiltration method which is still non-invasive. Regarding deeper cavities, as of now, it’s best to fill them instead of waiting because there are no promising regenerative treatments to be available in 5 years’ time (which is a long considering existing tooth decay). If you are getting fillings make sure you read our most recent article “How to make dental fillings last longer?” where we discuss the most important factors for long-lasting composite restorations (rubber dam, and microscope magnification, but it doesn’t end there). If we learn anything new about regenerative treatments we will surely update this article. Good luck!

    • Dorothy

      Hello Dentalfreaks,

      I just wanted to thank all of you for a fantastic job of these articles. Not only are they very informative but you give us up to date information. So I’m giving all the staff members outstanding applause. Blessings to all may you have a wonderful day.

      Deepest sincere,

  • Bilbo Baggins

    You neglected to include the enamel regeneration product developed by Washington University. The article claims they are in partnership with commercial players already.

    “The team, in partnership with some of the biggest players in the oral care consumer products market, is working on prototypes for preventive, restorative, therapeutic and cosmetic dental products.”


      Hello, thank you for your feedback!
      We’ll have a look into this and if we find it relevant we’ll surely include it in the article. But after a quick glance it appears that this approach is not regrowing but rather remineralizing tooth structures, and as we state above we skip these types of treatments: In this article, we are discussing only the latter one, which means growing new layers of enamel, which your body is unable to do on its own.

    • Bilbo Baggins

      Incorrect. The product lays down between 10 and 50 micrometers of new enamel per application. It rebuilds/regenerates/regrows enamel. The team is already in talks with retailers and they claim that the ingredients are all natural so there might be an easier road to approval.

      Read the many articles and papers on this technology.

      You also did not include the enamel regrowing efforts in China and the UK.


      Thank you for your input, we will analyze the items you’ve mentioned in your comment and update our article accordingly.

    • SB

      Your article does not include information regarding research led by University of Washington school of dentistry in which they claim that they formed enamel growing organoid which help to regrow and restore damaged teeth.
      Please kindly check about this research whether it is true or just a way of getting grants.


      Thank you for your post, we will research these topics and prepare a separate section for it!

  • Robert Moffitt

    I would like to speak with a researcher, perhaps someone at Columbia about clinical trials being conducted re:human tooth regrowth. I have a graduate science background in molecular biology, and happen to write successful grant proposals to the U.S. government that incorporate innovative research.
    If there is some interest, I would like to assist in getting these trials back into the public realm.


      We have removed your phone number as it is not wise to post it publicly. Also, your e-mail is hidden but if anyone wants to respond to Robert’s request just contact us directly and we’ll let you know how to reach this person.

  • Dayane Santos de Lima

    Olá, eu fiz algumas pesquisas e achei muito interessante o tema sobre regeneração dentária. Bom achei vários de pesquisa global que envolve a regeneração dentária como esmalte, dentina e polpa. Fiz algumas pesquisa e me certifiquei que já é viável a regeneração do esmalte através de células troncos, gel ou Laser. Eu fiz contato com a Dra Janet Oldak que criou o gel que regenera esmalte dentário cavitado, ela disse que está em fase regulamentação e que o produto já tem até patente.

    Hoje eu acho que o melhor tratamento para regeneração dos dentes é através de células troncos, como hoje já é possível regenerar polpa do dente morto (dentes com canal) e já foi comprovado em ensaios clínicos em vivo, O resto do dente também pode ser.

    Nesse relatório de pesquisa global diz que muitos produtos vão ser lançados após 2024. Nós já estamos vivendo na era da Medicina Regenerativa, Odontologia Regenerativa, Engenharia de tecidos e Terapia Celulas……

    Fui tentar adquirir um relatório desse custa entorno de 17 mil reais…

    • Ricardo

      Lado comercial intere$$ante. Motivo do lado emocional; de querermos um dente mais natural: é intrigante!
      Automatic translation: Interesting business side. Reason on the emotional side; of wanting a more natural tooth: it’s intriguing!

  • mary duane

    mentioned in the article, Dental Implants Advancements 2021 — new implants techologies, the advantage of The Bioimplant (RAI) being 100% Titanium Free because it is made of Zirconium. What are the disadvantages or downsides of Titanium in an implant ? thank you Mary


      Possibly corrosion causing local inflammations, and some people are allergic to titanium. Also when you have gum recessions titanium appears grey under gums while zirconia is colored similarly to natural teeth.

    • Ajay

      What’s the update of redent tideglusib drug in kings collage .can you confirm if the research is stopped or not?


      We cannot confirm it is stopped, BUT the biggest problem with this approach is that the earliest articles claimed that it’s a miracle cure and you’ll be able to rebuild whole dentin with this treatment, while the reality is rather harsh: this will only regenerate dentin in pulp exposure (where normally direct pulp capping would be applied) or near pulp exposure scenarios. So sadly, while still being useful this is not what we are all looking for in terms of regenerative medicine.

  • Marcus

    About the enamel regeneration. There are already some treatments that regenerate enamel.
    I’m posting the websites for more information (I hope that’s okay).

    The first one from 2015 or 2016 and it is called “Innodent”.

    There is also another one that was released recently and it is called “Curodont Repair”.

  • Aron

    Have you seen this new research?
    “Suppressing a gene known as USAG-1 by using its antibody may efficiently lead to tooth growth, according to researchers at Kyoto University and the University of Fukui.”


  • Solid titanium teeth

    It’s possible to replace our teeth by solid metal replicas? I mean, having solid metal teeth (maybe titanium). The reason is that those teeth would be stronger and more durable, at least they should not have caries or discolouration like regular teeth. I think that it would be two approaches here: oseointegrated implants and “ligaplants” (implants with periodontal ligament). In both of them the teeth should be a solid piece, so it would avoid to have voids where bacteria could grow. I have seen this on a person and it’s absolutely awesome, but I want to know more about it. In both cases my biggest concern is periimplantitis and periodontitis (wich is common in “natural” teeth). Thanks in advance.


      Why do you even mention discoloration if the teeth are made of metal? They would not look like human teeth in the first place. It’s was possible to have titanium anatomic implants but they are no longer available. Also, why do you consider metal if zirconium is superior material and these implants look just like real teeth?

    • Solid titanium teeth

      Yes, I mean solid metal pieces with the shape of my teeth, I don’t care about aesthetics (I like how they look). I know that some people wont like them, but if you have a certain level of “social freedom” (family, job/money…), you will not have problems with other people.

      Also, I mean a full replacement of my teeth, one by one. Can it be done replacing the teeth without doing screws, just using a solid metal replica with the same shape? I am searching information about “ligaplants” because they would allow just that.

      Maybe you find this too extreme, but I am very interested, at this comment It’s very difficult for me, but at least I want to satisfy my curiosity, it’s a body modification that I have been thinking about for years.


      You certainly DO NOT want to replace all the teeth with fake ones as research shows removing this nerves can lead to cognitive decline. To put it simply there is research that concludes: the more teeth you lose, the more it may affect your brain in a negative way.
      Also, why go for bad aesthetics if perfect aesthetics with the same mechanical properties is available?


      Zirconium is not toxic, it has a long track record and is proven to be safe, especially it’s safer than titanium because it won’t corrode.

  • janis

    Are you aware of any teratoma research? It seems really fascinating to me. You could grow teeth in a lab and transplant them right after extraction.


      Please remember that your teeth have nerve connections. Once you extract a tooth this connection is broken, so it would be easier to implant teeth to grow in the mouth rather than implant already grown teeth. Also the socket after extraction has a certain shape so a new tooth would have to be identical to fit it perfectly. We already can print zirconium implants to fit a socket (BioImplant), but we are not sure if this would be possible with growing new teeth.

    • janis

      From what ive read about tooth autotransplantation none of that seems to be a problem. Also i dont want to seem rude but you didnt answer my question.


      Yes, sorry, we are not aware of any teratoma research, all reasearch that we are aware of is presentet in the article above.

    • Erica Horton

      Hi there,

      The oral lozenge that is having clinical trials in University of Washington. I don’t see it on your list for rebuilding enamel. Perhaps ‘rebuilding’ vs ‘regenerating’ indicates that this is actually only a lozenge to assist with remineralization?

      Obviously hoping that it helps with regenerating 🙏

      Thank you,


      Yes, we are aware of this, we are still gathering information before it’s included here.

  • janis

    i think that new technologies are only 50% of the problem. what if that tooth regrowing tech from berlin ask you thousands of euros for a single tooth? it will be useless for many people including me. i suspect monopolies play a role here, otherwise i cant understand how a 2 euro titanium screw can cost 2000 euros. that zirconium root analogue implant could allready revolutionize dentistry. but its so expensive and whats even weirder dentists dont even care about it. i asked them why they dont offer it in my country nobody even knew why.


      Classic titanium or zirconium (generic shape) screws will always be cheaper than anything that’s custom made 3D printed. Bioimplant tried to collect funds to scale their business and drive costs down, unsuccessfully we believe. Regarding high prices for implants, these 2000 euros are not for the screw itself but for complete implantation process which can only be performed by a qualified surgeon. Also you may want to consider getting implants somewhere cheaper, in some European (ie. Poland) countries it’s more like 550 euros for a titanium implant. Please notice that Bioimplant apart from being expensive have other limitations like the fact that you have to scan root of your tooth before implantation, if your tooth is already missing that’s not going to work.


      No, we do not. It’s too early to talk about the price when there haven’t been any clinical trials in humans – at the moment it’s not even 100% guaranteed this therapy will work and be comercially available. However if there are any news we will update this page.

    • Ricardo

      First trials may be free since there’re risks. Term of responsability seems better then commercialy available.


      Thank you for your question Robert. It’s probably at least 20 years away. However, there are many treatments that may help different patients/cases:
      1. enamel regeneration will be helpful for those with a worn outer layer of teeth (teeth grinding or enamel erosion patients)
      2. dentin regeneration in currently studied form may be helpful for those with super deep cavities reaching/exposing pulp (to save the tooth from root canal)
      3. but the biggest hope is actually growing new teeth in the patient’s mouth – you need to observe the progress made by TU Berlin (described in the article above). if it’s successful that may be the holy grail of teeth regeneration, we will keep you up to date regarding their progress
      4. also, please note that currently there is no research that will allow a regrowth decayed part of a tooth removed by a dentist.
      Hope this helps. We also look forward to these treatments in the upcoming years!

    • Hendrik Smeenk

      Dear Dental Freak,

      First I love your work, love you so much.

      Second everyone must find there dentist, or keep on looking for better one for you. The stem cell treatments are still to long way ahead to do nothing.

      Now if you want to start predicting the future dental freak. Use please science’s instead of gut feelings. I understand your carefullness because alot of criminals are using the desperateness of people who is losing there teeths.

      My advice is use the methode of Ray Kurzweil, he has around 86 procent correct ratio. And his tech singularity theorie is the growth is expotioneel.

      [ Link removed to reddit “Ray Kurzweil reveals some contents of his new book, in South Korean tech related event “There will be 99 technological breakthroughs in 99 years”. ]

      There have been in the recent 40 years so much changes in the tooth industries.

      You just need to see it.

      For samples there are now like 100 universities working on the tooth business worldwide. They are working close by with companies and governments.

      It has become now a race to get the breakthrough out.

      Also the covid and the medical branch who has now so much of funding has speed everything up.

      There are systems build for sample AI who makes trillions off simulations, how a vaccination can react on our body. That means combining with human clinic trails we will be way more effective and more revolutionary.

      For sample even in this blog, your views and breakthrough will be posts more frequently up coming years. And we will start building community, so people know which sources to trust. The con artists will start raising fast aswell or people who want to be quick wins breakthrough without doing the heavy lifting where some professors has invested like 40 years of there life.

      I decide to get the best dental and will do everything to get to the bridge 1, that means around 2026 where the stem cells will revolutionary our lives. I have mental accepted to do implants, hope it will only be 5 years and maximal 10 years. The reason behind this is because your made it clear what will happend the next 3-4 years. But the future prediction please be more sciences and research how Ray kurzweil predict it.


      Thank you for your comment, Hendrik. Yes, scientific advances may become more intense due to the AI and better technologies, but you need to keep in mind that every new technology or drug requires a certain amount of time for testing, safety, etc. For drugs, it’s usually at least 10 years between the moment when a new molecule is discovered and when the drug is on the market. So for now the most reasonable decision is to keep your teeth in the best shape possible. Also, we’re not fans of endodontic treatment, but since it preserves tooth socket it may be more reasonable to go for it instead of an implant (if possible), just in case there is the possibility to grow new teeth in the mouth with stem cells in the future.

  • Adam

    Thanks for great information on this website. It is very interesting, informative and depressing when you say that these solutions will be available 20 year from now etc. After reading the whole article, I noticed that you missed important contributions by Dr. Paul Sharpe from London College on tooth regeneration. For thorough information regarding his work please see his presentation in youtube [sorry no outbound links in the comments section allowed; YouTube title to search is: “CSAR webinar: Professor Paul Sharpe”]. It is a little uplifting experience watching it. If I am correct, he already started clinical trials in early 2020.


      Hey, thank you for your comment! We had to remove direct link, but we left the title so it should still be searchable on YouTube. It looks like we have already covered work by team led by Paul Sharpe in chapter covering: “Promotion of natural tooth repair by small molecule GSK-3 antagonists”. Sadly it’s not very promising as regrowing dentine this way will be VERY limited only to near-pulp exposures, making it not practical. Anyway, we will watch the video carefully and update our article if there is anything new there!
      As of now we give most of our hope to work done by TU Berlin, but we have some more research that’s still waiting to be posted here. But for now of course it’s best to care about your teeth and choose a good dentist, read our blog frequently as we try to share many useful tips.

    • Marcus

      Good evening once again. I believe that the scenario of Mr. Sharpe will be something like this: the dentist will remove the caries, he will put the sponge with the medicine in the tooth and a common dental filling will follow. The sponge may not sound very practical, which is why Mr. Sarpe is also developing a hydrogel that will be cured and sealed with normal filling material (for the missing enamel). So basically the dentin will regenerate completely with the only thing missing for the tooth to be complete the enamel.

      I’m posting a link of a youtube video of Mr. Sharpe saying more information about this:


      Okay, this looks promising, but we have to kill the vibe a bit. This technique, given that it works, passes clinical trials etc. will be able to regrow dentin. Let’s be optimistic and assume that this growth will be unlimited if you do this procedure few times one by one. While this sounds good for occlusal caries (cavities on the chewing part), where it’s mostly dentine that’s missing you need to be aware that in proximal caries (mesial or distal caries) enamel may be the most important thing that’s missing. If the cavity is deep and your proximal wall made of enamel is not there anymore regrowing dentine won’t help much. Adhesive restorative materials bond great with enamel and poorly with dentine. Therefore after regrowing whole dentine you would still need proper marginal seal for your filling to hold well, and if there is not much enamel left this dental work will be compromised and vulnerable for recurrent decay. This is why we believe these regenerative procedures will be great for teeth that have their first dental work done, but not so for the ones that are already with fillings. In the latter case we believe whole tooth replacement is the most promising.

    • Ricardo

      Dental freak Scenario sounds conservative. That’s good. Otto Warburg, 1931 Nobel prize, led us to the conclusion that there are no diseases at an alkaline enviroment. Caries need an acid enviroment. So depending how eating habits go, self care, and so on; may be dangerous to wait even 3 months. Otherwise u may wait over 3 years. RISKS shall be understood by whom takes the final decision.

    • Adam

      Thanks Marcus for extra info regarding Dr. Sharpe’s work. Yes, it is not a complete work yet since it does not restore enamel but I do not think like (I mean no offence). I believe in collective contribution and team work. Germans came up with new tooth growth, Sharpe came up with tooth repair (dentin, root) , Japanese and Chinese came up with tooth enamel repair/growth. If you combine all their talents and hard work you will get a Fantastic Four to end Dark Age orthodox dentistry.


      We all root for that, but we’re also trying to be realistic, that’s it. As of now, Germans have no ready technology, Sharpe has dentin regrowth which at this point may be viable only to limited regrowth in near pulp exposures (no clinical trials completed though), and Japanese/Chinese scientists have technology that is too slow in regrowth making it not viable clinically. This reminds us of a “hair loss cure” which should be available in 10 years. The only problem is that the same “10 years” were claimed 10, 20, and 30 years ago… But this page will be updated every time there is anything new on the tooth regrowth and regeneration research so check back often.

  • Scott Blagrove


    I just read today that ozone therapy in dentistry can regrow tooth enamel. do you know much about this? many dentist’s in America and Canada don’t use ozone in their work ;(


    scott B


      Hello, thank you for your question. The truth is that ozone therapy will NOT regrow any enamel. But it still may be helpful in case of deep cavities – ozone is great at killing bacteria, and sometimes dentists can drill a bit less of dentine (layer below the enamel) and use ozone to help it remineralize. By doing so he may save some of your dentine that would have to be drilled (removed) otherwise. Ozone may be also helpful in remineralizing enamel – in some mild cases, it may be a great alternative for drilling (removing the enamel to place a composite filling). So to sum up: it does not regrow enamel, but it can save enamel or dentin from drilling! So it’s always a good idea to choose a dentist that uses ozone therapy in his practice.

  • Marcus

    I would like to note something else if you do not mind. The Japanese company (with the anti–USAG-1 therapy) is called Toregem Bio Pharma. They claim that human clinical trials will soon begin and the target for commercialization will be in 2030. They seem to know what they are doing. Let’s hope they achieve their goal.

    • Angela

      Excellent summary and thank you for updating! There is so much outdated and aspirational content out there.

      Can you please comment more on enamel and gum regrow? How and when do you see those commercially available?

      I unfortunately have hereditary weak enamel and gums prone to recession. Will these new therapies be able to restore or restore and improve enamel and gums?


      We will consider doing a chapter on regrowing gums, but these procedures are already available, please look for:
      PST (Pinhole Surgery Technique) – where a tool is used to pull your gums back to their correct position
      Gum tissue graft surgery – where part of your palate is cut out to fill your recessed area

  • Marcus

    I would like to give you the source also.
    The link does not exist in English and I had to translate it via google translate.
    Here is their statement from some awards in Japan, they’re second on the list (Toregem Biopharma Co., Ltd.):

    [DentalFreak moderator: sorry we do not allow outbound links in the comments section, but below is text from the page you were trying to link to, we hope you understand, thank you!]

    “Bio Pharma Co., Ltd.Representative Director Honoka Kihaya is developing an injectable drug that makes it possible to eat with your own teeth for the rest of your life. Although the technical difficulty is extremely high, it has been confirmed that teeth can be grown even after permanent teeth are grown in mice and ferrets, and we are currently preparing for human clinical trials. An epoch-making initiative that can be expected to broadly improve the QOL of life

    Age Tech 2021 Award
    The origin of this initiative was that Dr. Katsutoshi Takahashi of the Department of Oral Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University met an excess tooth model mouse in 2007. Science and technology that has been developed with the support of AMED (Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development) and venture capital from Kyoto University. A completely new treatment method that regenerates teeth by stopping the function of degenerating and disappearing the buds of the third raw tooth (the tooth next to the permanent tooth) that humans originally have and growing it as the third tooth. The point of evaluation is the expectation that science and technology originating in Japan will cause a breakthrough and the magnitude of the impact when it is realized, which was not possible until now, although it would be nice if everyone had it. We are aiming for commercialization and launch in 2030.”

  • Joe Rundel

    Did you hear about the erbium Laser based application of a Hidroxylapatite film as a tooth coating? Maybe a very realistic method for the near future …? Check this:
    Best, Joe

  • Marcus

    Update from Toregem BioPharma (USAG-1 Therapy):

    They got funded by Astellas Venture Management with 450 million JPY.
    This has the effect of accelerating clinical trials.
    The clinical trials will take place at the end of 2023.

    Here’s the source (PDF file):
    (I’m aware that links are not allowed, but I would like to post them and prove that they’re valid).

    [we have removed the link as it was fully in Japanese, but we confirm that a PDF was attached]

    • K

      Hi, Marcus!
      Do you know by chance if a person from abroad (not Japanese) can sign up to take up in human trials? Do they provide any further information about this clinical trials? Thanks.


      What exactly are you asking about? We have just updated this page adding a new treatment in endodontics – Vital Pulp Therapy in adults. If we learn anything new regarding other treatments we will of course update the page as well.


      We have cures for sensitivity. Have you tried gels with a high concentration of hydroxyapatite or toothpaste with the ingredient called NOVAMIN (ie. some Sensodyne types)?

    • Saori

      Idk…but I’m using sensodyne enamel repair but idk if it working…I just want my white teeths back…pls…
      *sensodyne pro namel


      The one you should be using is: “Sensodyne Repair & Protect Deep Repair”. The only problem here is that when we check the ingredients of this toothpaste in the United Kingdom it contains NovaMin Technology (this is the “magic” compound that brings relief), yet in the USA the same toothpaste does not have it in the ingredients list. So the question is where are you located and does this toothpaste in your country contains NovaMin.


      Okay, great! Then the product you should try is called “Sensodyne Répare & Protège Original”. And another product you may want to try is called “Biorepair Dents Sensibles” – you can try one, then the other one or use them alternately.

    • Saori

      But how can I do if I have exposed dentine…I discuss it to my parents they don’t trust me…I really want my enamels back…


      At this point, it’s not possible to get the enamel back. Try this toothpaste to seal the dentine and stop having pain sensations, or visit your dentist for filling missing enamel with composite resin (bonding or veneers).

    • Saori

      I called my dentist this morning for an appointment he say don’t worry your teeths are fine…is it possible to send an e-mail or message to scientists who are working for enamel regrow? Bc I really need my enamels back…I feel like I’m going to loose my teeths in the futur…and I’m very scared…


      If your dentist said you do not need to cover your teeth with bonding or veneers he meant it. Try the toothpaste we have recommended, this should help. There are no active clinical trials about regrowing enamel, so it is not possible to sign up.

    • Saori

      Oh…so those things I saw on internet was a lie?…bruh it makes me more worried about my teeths…Hope a miracle happens in the futur…

  • OkinSama

    The delays and downright inaction to make any progress on dental advancements, is downright criminal. This industry is entirely motivated by money, not ensuring patients have access to a normal healthy mouth, or in pursuing advances that make future expensive-treatments less likely.
    Dental care is LIVE SAVING healthcare, not a luxury or some elective alteration.. The profit motive has held back dental care for decades!

  • Marcus

    It’s worth a look on Google, search for:
    “Toregem BioPharma and WuXi Biologics to partner for antibody development.”

    It seems that they have entered the road of clinical trials for good.
    I wish everything goes well.

    • zsy2023

      However, in Japan, new drugs need at least phase 2 clinical trials, which is 6 years, and currently they are mainly aimed at tooth growth disorders, and regenerated teeth are only a possible hope. Of course, the current test results in several animals are very good.
      Unless, Toregem BioPharma can find a lot of clinical trial targets to speed up the trial progress.
      I am very much looking forward to the availability of USAG-1 antagonists soon!

    • BILAL



      It depends on which solution will be successful – some are designed to rebuild a tooth, and some are designed to grow a new tooth after your natural tooth has been lost or extracted. So, if scientists are successful losing a tooth should not be a problem. But this therapy is not going to be available soon.

  • Domsa

    From the Jerusalem Post

    “When human bones suffer small defects such as fractures, they usually heal spontaneously, with the body restoring lost tissue. But when there are large defects, such as substantial bone loss resulting from removal of tumors by surgery, physical trauma, tooth extraction, gum disease or inflammation around dental implants, the bone is unable to renew itself.

    Now, an innovative new technology developed at Tel Aviv University will reportedly make possible the regeneration of bone to correct major defects by means of a special hydrogel (a three-dimensional network of polymers that can swell in water and hold a large amount of it while maintaining the structure). Following successful tests in an animal model, the researchers now plan to move forward to clinical trials.”

  • Anonymous

    Very interesting informaton and updates, I feel what patients are hoping for are not just dental repairs with a shelf life but real biological solutions that give them the confidence to live fully (I am thinking of biological enamel regeneration, for example).
    Please keep up the updates!


      Thank you for your kind words. We will constantly be up to date. Regarding current filling materials, remember that we’re talking about composite resin fillings it’s all about adhesion quality (meaning: rubber dam isolation, microscope magnification, high-quality materials, and proper setting technique). Filling with good adhesion will last a very long time if your diet and hygiene are good!


      You need to look for dental implants, a cure for lost teeth probably won’t be here for the next 10 years.

    • Manas upadhyay

      dental implants are not real solution for lost teeth. i wish humans can control their brains and stimulate real teeth growth biologically.


      Of course, they are not. But there were some recent improvements that let you have implants without altering your natural anatomy, so these are definitely less invasive than classic screw-type implants. Of course, these require having tooth ready for extraction in the first place. But still, given you have no other options implants are definitely better than not having teeth at all! Keep in mind that missing teeth result in loss of bone structure, so not having teeth complicate the situation even more!


      It’s hard to tell. But there is a bigger change for that if you have a novel RAI type (Root Analogue Implants), as they preserve the shape of the roots of your real teeth. In the case of classic screw-type implants hole in your bone has a shape like a screw, it would be hard to grow a tooth with the same shape.

  • Anonymous


    Have you heard any updates of the University of Washington’s research into regenerating enamel? According to their twitter, they actually started human trials of summer 2022 even though they were supposed to start in 2021. However, nothing has been heard from them since Summer 2022.

    • Anonymous

      Did you ever hear anything more about the University of Washington study? I’ve been scouring the internet for months. The trials were supposed to have been wrapped up by now.

  • Genesis

    Hey, I tried searching up this new product on here. It’s called Emdogain. Very new biomaterial to help build Dentin I believe. It was faulty at first because the bridge wasn’t fully built but these studies been out for about a Decade, now it sells for about 1k £ ? – 2k U.S. ?.


      Emdogain is used for bone regeneration in periodontal surgery, not dentin regeneration – it has nothing to do with dentin.

  • Marcus

    We have an update from TU Berlin:

    An external team, which is currently in the development and start-up phase, is continuing the research on tooth regrowth. If the experiments continue to be successful, preclinical testing will be pursued. We will keep you informed about further developments.

    They wrote this in their related YouTube video titled:
    “Nachwachsende Zähne”.

  • Anonymous

    Hello, first of all thank you for this page, this could give me as a layman a good overview.

    What about teeth that have already been filled and where only part of the enamel is gone? Are there possible (future) approaches to remove the filling and regenerate the enamel, or that the above mentioned possible solutions mature in such a way that this would be possible?

    Or do the above “possible solutions” refer to teeth that have not yet been filled? If so, is the only hope to remove the filling by removing the tooth and then allowing it to regrow, for example, through the work of the TU Berlin?

    I hope for an answer.
    Thank you very much and have a nice day!


      to regrow part of a tooth that’s been drilled and filled you would need to be able to regenerate BOTH dentin AND enamel because you never really drill and fill until dentin below the enamel is affected. In this summary, we discuss both types of regenerative procedures but at this point, dentin regeneration is very limited (only to areas very close to the pulp – so in a very deep cavities) and enamel extremely is very slow making it impractical. But if we could regrow the whole tooth we wouldn’t need any of these – just drill and fill each tooth multiple times, and grow a new one once it starts to require a root canal.
      Please be aware that science is progressing really fast these days, and we may have new inventions soon.
      Regarding teeth that’s been drilled and filled – read our blog carefully, it’s up to you how long will these fillings last!

    • MARCUS

      There are many groups around the world (some of which are secret for obvious reasons) that aim for these treatments other than regenerating a full tooth. You can see their progress on PubMed. The golden ratio, if all goes well, will be in the next decade.

    • K

      Hello again!
      With reference to those research groups – do any of those that reached the stage of human studies offer an opportunity to sign up for such tests as a guinea pig?

    • Marcus

      They haven’t “officially” started clinical trials on humans yet. So we just have to wait patiently. However, there is a great demand from the whole world and this can help to achieve the goal of regenerative therapies faster.

  • Anonymous

    There is an existing gene inside of everyone which tells the body to grow teeth in the first place, this gene goes dormant after it’s done it’s job. This gene CAN be triggered to grow a third set and has in very rare cases for some people. THAT is what the research should be focused on. THAT is the ONLY thing which will really work in the long run. I’ve been hearing all the other crap for 40+ years and nothing ever came about it… my teeth as a mess, I have no reason to live.

    • K

      Hi, I’m in a similar situation, horribly decayed teeth with loss of both enamel and dentin (never laughing in public any more not to terrify people around 🙂 Still believe in progress in that field.

  • Gregory

    [we have removed external link to Nature: Toothpaste with microrepair science]
    how much improvement makes BioRepair nanoparticle where hydroxyapatite is paired with zink?


      It should still be considered a remineralizing agent, not a compound that repairs the enamel. It can fill micro holes in exposed dentin, relieve sensitivity, but it’s certainly not building back any lost enamel or dentin. But BioRepair products are good, and we like them! Just don’t expect them to be a kind of cure, which they are not!

  • Yan

    I have followed Reminova from King’s College London several years, but after 2019, there is no more updating information, I really like their method and treatment that remineralize and regenerate our teeth. Do you have their news?

  • Anonymous

    excuse me i’m wondering why you know this. i try my best to look for any up-date of Tideglusib. and which source?


      This page is mainly based on the scientific papers that Paul Sharpe and his colleagues from Kings College London have published.

  • Marcus

    It’s worth a look on Google:
    “World’s 1st ‘tooth regrowth’ medicine moves toward clinical trials in Japan”

    Short summary:
    The clinical trials set to begin in July 2024 and they aiming to have it ready for general use in 2030.

    • A

      “The clinical trials set to begin in July 2024 and they aiming to have it ready for general use in 2030.”

      Is this real? Is this the holy grail we have been waiting for? So, if things go well, we can regrow new teeth replacing our missing or bad teeth? This would be unimaginably incredible.

    • Marcus

      Yes, it’s real and it’s only a matter of time before it happens.
      If all stages of the clinical trials are successful, then we could grow new teeth again.
      You will also see in the coming years various techniques for regenerating teeth by other researchers from all over the world.

    • A

      I sincerely hope thing will develop in a fast manner and that this medicine among other effective regenerative therapies will be available before 2030.

      So in fact they have been working from around the year 2000 on this medicine in Japan aren’t they? So after 20 plus years they are starting clinical trials. Thats seems reliable and realistic. Good, let’s hope for the best. This is one of the biggest mercies for human kind.

  • Irene

    Tregem Biopharma Co., Ltd. This Japanese company is developing USAG-1 to help re-growth tooth. Hope it come true soon. It will help human

    • J

      2030 – for those who have no teeth at all at birth.
      2033 – for those who dont have some of their teeth at birth
      TBD date – for everyone else who lost their teeth on their own. (Apparently 2036 at best, but more likely later)
      Source – YouTube presentation by Honoka Kiso, CEO

  • Joel

    Hi, I wanted to drop links to a few things to get your thoughts on them:

    [we have removed full links]

    Thanks for all your work!


      We will update our article soon. Please keep in mind that commercial products you are linking to have nothing to do with tooth regeneration and regrowth, all they do is remineralization which is nothing new.

  • A

    Can you please make an Item/menu on the top of the page, calling it “discussion”. Then it will be easy to post information or questions. Thanks.

    • A

      I meant it would be best if you added a section “Comments” on top next to “Heal Tooth decay” and “Contact us”. In this way people will instantly know there is a comments section and may be invited to add comments to keep this site more alive. Thanks for your great efforts.

  • J

    I believe ReDent (Regenerative of dentine, Prof. Paul Sharpe et al) will be available soon. They are looking for a company to manufacture and sell it.

    • Marcus

      To reach this point of commercialization, preclinical and clinical trials are needed. For now, nothing like that seems on the horizon. It will take time. I believe that it will not be available within the next 10 years (maybe even longer). I also believe that other groups of researchers will get there earlier than Mr. Paul Sharpe’s. Anyway, no one can say for sure.


      We will inform about any upcoming trials, but you can also follow all the researchers on your own to make sure you don’t miss anything. But we’re not sure if clinical trials are best option to consider. Commercially available treatments should be more reliable than trials. Also we believe that if the trials are for instance in Japan it will not be possible to join them by people not actually living in Japan.

  • J

    Dental pulp regeneration is available in Japan in some clinics (Link to Japanese website “satsuki-dc”). Based on Misako Nakashima research (Dental pulp stem cells from wisdom tooth) and this dr was co author in some of the articles.


      Thank you for this insight, we have never seen anything like that. The article has been updated and we will keep an eye on this technology.

  • J

    I wonder if they’ll try allogeneic DPSC on humans. It would simplify the process and lower the price, I guess. They already tested it on dogs: “According to a recent preclinical study of allogeneic transplantation of DPSCs after pulpectomy of canine incisors, the absence of side effects following transplantation of allogeneic mismatched DPSCs suggests that it exhibits immunosuppressive ability even in vivo”.

  • A

    Guys, I just want to know what our teeth regrow or restauration options will be in about 10 years from now. Are you convinced there will be life saving therapies around the corner? Thanks


      If you want a reasonable, realistic answer – no, it won’t be available to regrow teeth in 10 years. There probably will be better filling materials, better root canal techniques, materials with more regenerative capabilities, but it’s not that close in terms of real breakthroughs. Also, these technologies will be pricey at the beginning, that’s for sure.

    • Marcus

      Convinced? It depends. No one can predict with certainty that all these treatments will be available in 10 years. It may take much longer, some treatments may not even work. At best, however, the minimum is 10 years. One thing is certain, that dentistry is moving in this direction. Also there will definitely be a big demand for these treatments which may help them come faster. However, when they will be available remains to be seen.

  • Hannah

    Thanks for this article. I am interested in enamel regeneration research and technology as I have veneers. I got them because I had enamel erosion on my front teeth. Do you think that in the next 20 years it’d be possible to regrow the enamel instead of continually replacing veneers for the rest of my life?


      It’s already technically possible, although at a VERY slow rate which makes it hard for clinical application. 20 years sound realistic, but to be honest you never can be 100% sure…

  • Marcus

    Update for whole tooth regeneration: Many stem cell studies have not progressed beyond animal trials due to significant safety and ethical concerns. Concerns include the risk of unwanted tissue growth, tumor development, and the spread of cancer cells, all of which remain unresolved.

    It seems like USAG-1 antibody is the only option for whole tooth regeneration right now.

  • Irene

    But the USAG-1 antibody is aim for anodontia children, not for those adult who lost of tooth becuase of tooth decay

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