Conditions,  Health

Hyperdontia – Teeth Removal, Causes, Images, Surgery in Adults

Key Facts

  • Hyperdontia is a dental condition characterized by having an excess number of teeth
  • The extra teeth may be similar in shape to normal teeth (supernumerary) or they may be abnormal in shape (odontoma)
  • Hyperdontia affects between 1% to 4% of the population
  • It can be associated with certain genetic disorders or syndromes, but in many cases, the cause is unknown
  • The management may include monitoring, extraction, orthodontic treatment, or surgery in complicated cases

What is Hyperdontia?

Hyperdontia refers to a condition where a person has more teeth than the usual number. In general, humans have 20 primary teeth and 32 permanent teeth. Anyone with more than this number has hyperdontia. The extra teeth are often referred to as supernumerary teeth. Depending on their shape and location, the additional teeth may cause dental problems, including crowding, impaction, or malocclusion, and may require treatment.

Symptoms of Hyperdontia

The most obvious symptom of hyperdontia is the presence of extra teeth. However, their shapes and locations can vary:

Shapes of Extra Teeth

  • Supplemental: These are similar in size and shape to regular teeth
  • Tuberculate: They have a barrel-like shape and are usually small
  • Conical: These are peg-shaped and may be sharp
  • Compound Odontoma: Made up of a mass of dental tissue that resembles multiple, small tooth-like structures
  • Complex Odontoma: Made up of a disorganized mass of dental tissue that does not resemble teeth

Locations of Extra Teeth

  • Mesiodens: Located between the two front teeth in the upper jaw
  • Paramolars: Located next to molars
  • Distomolars: Located behind the molars, usually in the upper jaw

Other symptoms can include crowding of the teeth, failure of the normal teeth to erupt, and occasionally pain or discomfort.

What Causes Hyperdontia?

The exact cause of hyperdontia is not clearly understood. Several factors have been associated with the condition:

  • Genetics: Hyperdontia tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic component.
  • Developmental Disorders: Certain syndromes and disorders like Gardner’s syndrome and cleft lip and palate are associated with hyperdontia.
  • Environmental Factors: Some studies suggest that environmental factors during tooth development may play a role, although this is not well-established.

How is Hyperdontia Diagnosed?

Hyperdontia is often diagnosed through routine dental exams. During the examination, a dentist will visually inspect the mouth and may notice the presence of extra teeth. To confirm the diagnosis and assess the position and structure of the supernumerary teeth, dental X-rays will usually be performed. In cases where hyperdontia is associated with a genetic disorder or syndrome, a medical history and additional diagnostic tests may be necessary.

How is Hyperdontia Treated?

The treatment for hyperdontia depends on various factors including the number, position, and shape of the supernumerary teeth, as well as any associated symptoms or complications.

  • Monitoring: In cases where the extra teeth are not causing any problems, the dentist may recommend regular monitoring without immediate intervention.
  • Extraction: When the extra teeth are causing crowding, impaction, or other dental problems, extraction may be necessary.
  • Orthodontic Treatment: In cases where the normal alignment of teeth is disrupted, orthodontic treatment with braces or other appliances may be necessary to correct the alignment.
  • Surgical Intervention: For complex cases, especially when associated with syndromes, surgical intervention might be needed.

Living with Hyperdontia

Living with hyperdontia requires regular dental check-ups to monitor the condition and prevent complications. Maintaining good oral hygiene is essential to prevent gum diseases or other issues related to crowded teeth.

What Should I Do if My Child Has Hyperdontia?

If your child has hyperdontia, it’s essential to consult a dentist for a thorough evaluation and to discuss the available treatment options. Early intervention can be crucial in preventing complications such as misalignment or impaction.

Why Do I Need to Do Anything about Hyperdontia?

Ignoring hyperdontia can lead to various complications, such as:

  • Orthodontic Crowding: The extra teeth can cause crowding, making it difficult for the regular teeth to emerge in their proper positions. This can result in misalignment and may require orthodontic intervention.
  • Damage to Neighboring Teeth: Supernumerary teeth can damage neighboring teeth, affect the roots, or cause resorption of the adjacent teeth.

Gum Inflammation and Infection

Extra teeth can make oral hygiene difficult, leading to an accumulation of plaque and bacteria. This can result in gum inflammation and infection.

Hyperdontia Risk Factors

There are several factors that can increase the risk of developing hyperdontia:

  • Genetic Factors: Hyperdontia tends to run in families, indicating a genetic component. Certain genetic disorders and syndromes, such as Gardner’s syndrome and cleft lip and palate, are also associated with hyperdontia.
  • Gender: Studies have shown that males are more likely to have hyperdontia than females.
  • Ethnicity: Some studies suggest that certain ethnic groups may have a higher prevalence of hyperdontia.

Hyperdontia Complications

Hyperdontia can lead to several complications, including:

  • Dental Crowding: The extra teeth can take up space in the mouth, causing the adjacent teeth to become misaligned.
  • Impaction: Supernumerary teeth might prevent the normal teeth from erupting properly, leading to impaction.
  • Tooth Resorption: The roots of the neighboring teeth may be reabsorbed due to the pressure from the extra teeth.
  • Cysts and Tumors: In rare cases, cysts or tumors may develop around the supernumerary teeth.
  • Periodontal Disease: Increased teeth can make oral hygiene difficult and lead to gum diseases.

When to See a Dentist

It’s important to see a dentist if you or your child has any signs of hyperdontia, such as extra teeth, crowding, pain, or difficulty with normal teeth eruption. Regular dental check-ups are also essential for early detection and management of hyperdontia.


The outlook for individuals with hyperdontia varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any associated syndromes or complications. With proper management, which may include extraction of the extra teeth and orthodontic treatment, many individuals can maintain good oral health. In cases where hyperdontia is associated with a genetic disorder, ongoing management of the disorder will also be important.

Bottom Line

Hyperdontia is a dental condition characterized by the presence of extra teeth. It can be associated with various risk factors and can lead to several complications if not properly managed. Early detection and intervention are key to preventing or minimizing these complications. Individuals with hyperdontia should maintain regular dental check-ups and follow the advice of their dentist for optimal oral health.

This article is complete and was published on June 25, 2023, and last updated on August 25, 2023.

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